Marijuana and Medical Marijuana References
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This page:

Marijuana use in the United States, how widespread? What are the effects of marijuana on the mind? How does marijuana use impact health? What are the uses of medical marijuana? What are the benefits and risks of medical marijuana?

See also:

Adolescent Psychology

The History of Opium

Selecting the Right Drug and Alcohol Rehab

Making a Success of Drug and Alcohol Rehab


Cannabiz: The Explosive Rise of the Medical Marijuana Industry by John Geluardi


Understanding Marijuana: A New Look at the Scientific Evidence by Mitch Earleywine


Dying to Get High: Marijuana as Medicine by Wendy Chapkis, Richard Webb


The Science of Marijuana by Leslie L. Iversen


Marijuana Myths Marijuana Facts: A Review Of The Scientific Evidence by Lynn Zimmer (Author), John P. Morgan


Legalizing Drugs: Crime Stopper or Social Risk? (USA Today's Debate: Voices and Perspectives) by Margaret J. Goldstein


Cannabis And Young People: Reviewing the Evidence by -Richard Jenkins


 


 
Page updated: November 13, 2015



Marijuana and Medical Marijuana References

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2. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. NSDUH Series H-25. DHHS Pub. No. (SMA) 04-3964. Rockville, MD: DHHS, 2004.

3. ElSohly, M.A. Quarterly report: Potency monitoring project. February 2004, unpublished.

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5. Sarafian, T.A.; Magallanes, J.A.; Shau, H.; Tashkin, D.; and Roth, M.D. Oxidative stress produced by marijuana smoke. An adverse effect enhanced by cannabinoids. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 20(6):1286-1293, 1999.

6. Roth, M.D.; Arora, A.; Barsky, S.H.; Kleerup, E.C.; Simmons, M.; and Tashkin, D.P. Airway inflammation in young marijuana and tobacco smokers. Am. J. Respir Crit Care Med 157(3):928-937, 1998.

7. Heishman, S.J.; Arasteh, K; and Stitzer, M.L. Comparative effects of alcohol and marijuana on mood, memory, and performance. Pharmacol Biochemical Behavior 58(1):93-101, 1997.

8. Fletcher, J.M.; Page, J.B.; Francis, D.J.; Copeland, K.; Naus, M.J.; Davis, C.M.; Morris, R.; Krauskopf, D.; and Satz, P. Cognitive correlates of chronic cannabis use in Costa Rican men. Archives of General Psychiatry 53:1051-1057, 1996.

9. Block, R.I., and Ghoneim, M.M. Effects of chronic marijuana use on human cognition. Psychopharmacology 100(1-2): 219-228, 1993.

10. Graham, A.W.; Schultz, T.K.; and Wilford, B.B. (eds.). Principles of Addiction Medicine, 2nd Edition. Chevy Chase, MD: American Society of Addiction Medicine, Inc., 1998.

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14. Zhu, L.X.; Sharma, M.; Stolina, S.; Gardner, B.; Roth, M.D.; Tashkin, D.P.; and Dubinett, S.M. Delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits antitumor immunity by a CB-2 receptor-mediated, cytokine dependent-pathway. J Immunology 165(1):373-380, 2000.

15. Gilman, A.G.; Rall, T.W.; Nies, A.S.; and Taylor, P. (eds.). Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th Edition. New York: Pergamon Press, 1998.

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17. Zhang, Z.-F.; Morgenstern, H.; Spitz, M.R.; Tashkin, D.P.; Yu, G.-P.; Marshall, J.R.; Hsu, T.C; and Schantz, S.P. Marijuana use and increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 6:1071-1078, 1999.

18. Brook, J.S.; Rosen, Z.; Brook, D.W. The effect of early marijuana use on later anxiety and depressive symptoms. NYS Psychologist January:35-39, 2001.

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23. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. NSDUH Series H-25. DHHS Pub. No. (SMA) 04-3964. Rockville, MD: SAMHSA, 2004.

24. Johnston, L.D.; O'Malley, P.M.; and Bachman, J.G. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use, Overview and Key Findings, 2004. NIH Pub. No. 05-5506. Bethesda, MD: NIDA, NIH, DHHS, 2005.

25. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. Emergency Department Trends from DAWN: Final Estimates 1995-2002. DAWN Series D-24; DHHS Pub. No. (SMA) 03-3780. Rockville, MD: SAMHSA, 2003.

26. National Institute of Justice, Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program. Preliminary Data on Drug Use and Related Matters Among Adult Arrestees & Juvenile Detainees, 2002. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, 2002.

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28. Ohlsson, A.; Lindgren, J.E.; Wahlen, A.; Agurell, S.; Hollister, L.E.; and Gillespie, H.K. Plasma delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol concentrations and clinical effects after oral and intravenous administration and smoking. Clin Pharmacol Ther 28(3):409-416, 1980.

29. Foltin, R.W.; Fischman, M.W; Pedroso, J.J.; and Pearlson, G.D. Marijuana and cocaine interactions in humans: cardiovascular consequences. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 28(4):459-464,1987.

30. Chen, J.P.; Paredes, W.; Li, J.; Smith, D.; Lowinson, J.; and Gardner, E.L. Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol produces naloxone-blockable enhancement of presynaptic basal dopamine efflux in nucleus accumbens of conscious, freely-moving rats as measured by intracerebral microdialysis. Psychopharmacology 102:156-162, 1990.

31. French, E.D. Delta-9 THC excites ret VTA dopamine neurons through activation of cannabinoid CB1 but not opioid receptors. Neurosci Lett 226:159-162, 1997.

32. Leshner, A.I., and Koob, G.F. Drugs of abuse and the brain. Proc Assoc Amer Physicians 111(2):99-108, 1999.

33. Pope, H.G., and Yurgelun-Todd, D. The residual cognitive effects of heavy marijuana use in college students. JAMA 275(7):521-527, 1996.

34. Mason, A.P., and McBay, A.J. Ethanol, marijuana, and other drug use in 600 drivers killed in single-vehicle crashes in North Carolina, 1978-1981. J Forensic Sci 29(4):987-1026, 1984.

35. Williams, A.F.; Peat, M.A.; Crouch, D.J.; Wells, J.K.; and Finkle, B.S. Drugs in fatally injured young male drivers. Public Health Report 100(1):19-25, 1985.

36. Cimbura, G.; Lucas, D.M.; Bennett, R.C.; and Donelson, A.C. Incidence and toxicological aspects of cannabis and ethanol detected in 1,394 fatally injured drivers and pedestrians in Ontario (1982-1984). J Forensic Sci 35(5):1035-1041, 1990.

37. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Notes. Marijuana and alcohol combined severely impede driving performance. Annals of Emergency Medicine 35(4):398-399, 2000.

38. Ford, D.E.; Vu, H.T.; and Anthony, J.C. Marijuana use and cessation of tobacco smoking in adults from a community sample. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 67:243-248, 2002.

39. Polen, M.R; Sidney, S.; Tekawa, I.S.; Sadler. M.; and Friedman, G.D. Health care use by frequent marijuana smokers who do not smoke tobacco. West J Med 158:596-601, 1993.

40. Sridhar, K.S.; Raub, W.A.; Weatherby, N.L., Jr.; Metsch, L.R.; Surratt, H.L.; Inciardi, J.A.; Duncan, R.C.; Anwyl, R.S.; and McCoy, C.B. Possible role of marijuana smoking as a carcinogen in the development of lung cancer at a young age. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 26(3):285-288, 1994.

41. Hoffman, D.; Brunnemann, K.D.; Gori, G.B.; and Wynder, E.E.L. On the carcinogenicity of marijuana smoke. In: V.C. Runeckles, ed., Recent Advances in Phytochemistry. New York: Plenum, 1975.

42. Cohen, S. Adverse effects of marijuana: Selected issues. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 362:119-124, 1981. 43. Klein, T.W.; Newton, C.; and Friedman, H. Microbial infections, immunomodulation, and drugs of abuse. Clin Microbiol Rev 2003, April 16 (2):209-19.

44. Mittleman, M.A.; Lewis, R.A.; Maclure, M.; Sherwood, J.B.; and Muller, J.E. Triggering myocardial infarction by marijuana. Circulation 103:2805-2809, 2001.

45. Lynskey, M.; and Hall, W. The effects of adolescent cannabis use on educational attainment: A review. Addiction 95(11):1621-1630, 2000.

46. Kandel, D.B., and Davies, M. High school students who use crack and other drugs. Arch Gen Psychiatry 53(1):71-80, 1996.

47. Rob, M.; Reynolds, I.; and Finlayson, P.F. Adolescent marijuana use: Risk factors and implications. Aust NZ J Psychiatry 24(1):45-56, 1990.

48. Zwerling, C.; Ryan, J.; and Orav, E.J. The efficacy of preemployment drug screening for marijuana and cocaine in predicting employment outcome. JAMA; 264 (20): 2639-43, 1990.

49. Budney, A.J.; Moore, B.A.; Vandrey, R.G.; and Hughes, J.R. The time course and significance of cannabis withdrawal. J Abnorm Psychol 112(3):393-402, 2003.

50. Brook, J.S.; Cohen, P.; and Brook, D.W. Longitudinal study of co-occurring psychiatric disorders and substance use. J Acad Child and Adolescent Psych 37(3):322-330, 1998.

51. Pope, H.G.; Gruber, A.J.; Hudson, J.I.; Huestis, M.A.; and Yurgelun-Todd. D. Neuropsychological performance in long-term cannabis users. Arch Gen Psychiatry 58(10):909-915, 2001.

52. Scheier, L.M., and Botvin, G.J. Effects of early adolescent drug use on cognitive efficacy in early-late adolescence: A developmental structural model. Journal of Substance Abuse 7(4):397-404, 1996.

53. Gruber, A.J.; Pope, H.G.; Hudson, J.I.; and Yurgelun-Todd, D. Attributes of long-term heavy cannabis users: a case-control study. Psychological Medicine 33:1415-1422, 2003.

54. Lester, B.M., and Dreher, M. Effects of marijuana use during pregnancy on newborn crying. Child Development 60(23/24):764-771, 1989.

55. Fried, P.A. The Ottawa prenatal prospective study (OPPS): Methodological issues and findings. It's easy to throw the baby out with the bath water. Life Sciences 56:2159-2168, 1995.

56. Fried, P.A.; and Smith, A.M. A literature review of the consequences of prenatal marihuana exposure: An emerging theme of a deficiency in aspects of executive function. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 23(1): 1-11, 2001.

57. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. NSDUH Series H-25. DHHS Pub. No. (SMA) 04-3964. Rockville, MD: SAMHSA, 2004.

58. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS): 1992-2002, National Admissions to Substance Abuse Treatment Services. DASIS Series: S-23, DHHS Pub. No. (SMA) 04-3965. Rockville, MD: DHHS, 2004.

59. Haney, M.; Ward, A.S.; Comer, S.D.; Foltin, R.W.; and Fischman, M.W. Abstinence symptoms following smoked marijuana in humans. Psychopharmacology 141:395-404, 1999.

60. Budney, A.J.; Hughes, J.R.; Moore, B.A.; and Novy, P.L. Marijuana abstinence effects in marijuana smokers maintained in their home environment. Arch Gen Psychiatry 58:917-924, 2001.

61. Kouri, E.M.; Pope, H.G.; and Lukas, S.E. Changes in aggressive behavior during withdrawal from long-term marijuana use. Psychopharmacology 143:302-308, 1999.

62. Lynskey, M.T.; Heath, A.C.; Bucholz, K.K.; Slutske, W.S.; Madden, P.A.F.; Nelson, E.C.; Statham, D.J.; and Martin, N.G. Escalation of drug use in early-onset cannabis users vs. co-twin controls. JAMA 289(4):427-433, 2003.

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65. Budney, A.J.; Higgins, S.T.; Radonovich, K.J.; and Novy PL. Adding voucher-based incentives to coping skills and motivational enhancement improves outcomes during treatment for marijuana dependence. J Consult Clin Psychol 68(6):1051-1061, 2000.

66. Heyser, C.J.; Hampson, R.E.; and Deadwyler, S.A. Effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on delayed match to sample performance in rats: Alterations in short-term memory associated with changes in task-specific firing of hippocampal cells. Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics 264(1):294-307, 1993.

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70. Walker, M.J.; Huang, S.M.; Strangman, N.M.; Tsou, K.; and Sanudo-Pena, M.C. Pain modulation by the release of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 96(21):12198-12203, 1999.

71. Wenger, T.; Toth, B.E.; Juaneda, C.; Leonardelli, J.; and Tramu, G. The effects of cannabinoids on the regulation of reproduction. Life Sci 65(6-7):695-701, 1999.

72. Maldonado, R.; and Rodriguez de Fonseca, F. Cannabinoid addiction: Behavioral models and neural correlates. J Neuroscience 22(9):3326-3331, 2002.

73. Breivogel, C.S.; Scates, S.M.; Beletskaya, I.O.; Lowery, O.B.; Aceto, M.D.; and Martin, B.R. The effects of delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol physical dependence on brain cannabinoid receptors. Euro J Pharmacology 459:139-150, 2003.

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76. Fried, P.A.; and Makin, J.E. Neonatal behavioural correlates of prenatal exposure to marihuana, cigarettes and alcohol in a low risk population. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 9(1):1-7, 1987

77. Johson, Kirk, (November 7, 2010). Where Marijuana Is a Point of Pride. New York Times.

Source: The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.


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